(1878 - 1968)
Austrian-born Swedish nuclear physicist. Born in Vienna, she worked at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute with radiochemist, Otto Hahn. They discovered the element protactinium and studied the effects of neutron bombardment on uranium.
Meitner became joint director of the institute and was appointed head of the Physics Department in 1917.
After leaving Nazi Germany in 1938, she found a post at the Nobel Physical Institute in Stockholm. She continued her research there, and, together with her nephew Otto Frisch, realized that they had split the uranium nucleus. They called it "fission." During the war, she refused to work on the atomic bomb. In 1947, a laboratory was established for her by the Swedish Atomic Energy Commission, and she worked on an experimental nuclear reactor.
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